In auditory processing, violations of local (within-trial) expectations elicit a mismatch negativity (MMN), while violations of global (across-trial) expectations elicit a later positive component (P300). As shown in Table 1, this interaction stems from the larger semantic priming effect in the high prime validity context (t(61) = −6.525, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = −0.829, CI = −1.115 −0.537) relative to the low prime validity context [t(61) = −5.169, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = −0.656, confidence interval (CI) = −0.929 −0.380]. It was also interesting to note that the semantic system did not overlap with the default network in any area other than left AG (Fig. This default or resting-state network has frequently been described as the reduction of activity in specific brain regions when subjects are engaged in effortful tasks (Shulman et al., 1997; Gusnard and Raichle, 2001; Mazoyer et al., 2001; Raichle et al., 2001), or engage in self-relevant internal thoughts about past and future events (Buckner et al., 2008; Andrews-Hanna et al., 2010a,b). Publication of an advertisement or other product mention in eNeuro should not be construed as an endorsement of the manufacturer’s claims. With this approach, the later negative cluster (Fig. It is usually considered to correspond with BA39 or von Economo and Koskinas' area PG [also defined as area 69 in the unified nomenclature of Triarhou (2007)]. The second was that vAG was more activated when semantic decisions were made on pictures than words. As with the ERP analyses, we low-pass filtered the resulting average time series below 20 Hz (EEGLAB’s pop_neweegfilt). The interaction was driven by a larger semantic priming effect in the high prime validity context (t(21) = −4.254, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = −0.907, CI = −1.398 −0.400) than in the low prime validity context (t(21) = −2.046, p = 0.054, Cohen’s d = −0.436, CI = −0.869 0.007; Table 2). However, in preregistered analyses of main effects in the same latency range, we found four significant main effects of relatedness of the target (i.e., unrelated vs related targets; Fig. Regarding the source estimation analyses, the early effect was localized to the middle frontal gyrus, which has been previously associated with semantic categorization when compared with passive listening (Noesselt et al., 2003). Non-brain-injured participants who were utilized to develop treatment stimuli. SEMANTIC ENCODING IN STUTTERING: NON-SPEECH RESPONSES TO VISUAL STIMU PARTICIPANTS • Experimental group: 15 AWS (mean age = 33 years, range = 20-62 years). In the study of Meyer and Schvaneveldt (1971) we refer to semantic priming, where semantic refers to the logic and language indi… Specifically, RTs that were more than X SDs from the mean were considered to be outliers and were removed, where the value of X decreases with decreasing sample size (i.e., number of trials in each condition for that participant) and is anchored at X = 2.5 for a sample size of 100. We instructed all participants that a colored uppercase word (either blue or yellow) will be displayed on the screen and that they must read it silently to themselves; then, a black lower case word will be displayed on the screen, and they should pronounce the word aloud, as fast and accurately as possible. Perception is facilitated by a hierarchy of expectations generated from context and prior knowledge. The only voxels that showed higher activation within the default network for semantic matching were located in the left angular gyrus. All participants gave written informed consent before participation in this study, which was approved by the STEM Ethical Review Committee of the University of Birmingham. The EEG signal was continuously recorded with a 125 channel AntNeuro EEG system (AntNeuro b.v.) at a sampling rate of 500 Hz, with impedances kept below 20 kΩ. For each subdivision and condition, we investigated whether semantic activation correlated, across our 94 subjects, with age, gender, handedness and/or the in-scanner semantic decision times. Since only semantic stimuli have been used until now, the nature of this phenomenon is still not clear. ERPs were elicited Each stimulus onset was modeled as an event using condition-specific ‘stick-functions’ having a duration of 4.32 s per trial and a stimulus onset interval of 4.5 s. These were convolved with a canonical hemodynamic response function thus providing regressors for the linear model. Functional scanning was always preceded by 14.4 s of dummy scans to insure steady-state tissue magnetization. Behavioral results. In particular, we note that higher mAG activation for reading relative to picture naming might reflect unconstrained semantic associations that occur in parallel to the direct links from orthography and phonology (Strain et al., 1995) or post articulation because reading is faster than picture naming (Fraise, 1969; Potter and Falconer, 1975) and our interstimulus onset was held constant. The CNV is typically observed in the preparatory period before a temporally-expected target and is considered to reflect priming of the neural circuits required for a task-appropriate response, whether that be motoric (Gómez et al., 2001) or cognitive (Chennu et al., 2013). ERP scalp topographies revealed two dipolar effects; first, an early fronto-temporal effect at ∼250 ms (A, B); then, a later parieto-occipital effect at around 340 ms. Electrodes contributing to the clusters are marked with black dots. Across two experiments, we replicated behavioral evidence of greater priming in the high validity context, reflecting strategic expectations of upcoming targets based on “global” context. Instead, using a pronunciation task allows for a purer measure of expectation, with the caveat of limiting the time window of artifact-free EEG for analysis. What are the numbers partly obscured? This study investigated the spatial overlap between the neural systems associated with semantic processing and the default network. The inclusion of a large heterogeneous sample of subjects who differed in their handedness, age and gender allows our findings to be generalized across different populations as well as giving us the opportunity to explicitly investigate the influence of these demographic variables on brain activity in different regions. However, we opted for defining the default network as a deactivation relative to fixation because (1) the number of fixation data points in our paradigm is relatively small (4 data points per fixation epoch) and this may not be sufficient to guarantee a robust ICA analysis, (2) we aimed to define both networks (semantic and default) using the same methodology, in this case by hypothesis-driven “cognitive subtraction” between different conditions, and (3) many previous studies have defined the default network as deactivation relative to a fixation (rest) condition (for review, see Laird et al., 2009) and found robust and reliable results (Shulman et al., 1997; Raichle et al., 2001). Similarly, our results suggested that only individuals that reported applying an effortful conscious strategy showed the global context effect as mentioned above. In the present study, we provided evidence of an early ERP effect that reflects violations of local semantic expectations, followed by an apredictive signal that interacted with the global context. Pseudo-stimuli were designed to control for lower level sensorimotor processes while minimizing semantic content (see Methods): auditory pseudo-stimuli consisted of words manipulated so that they were recognizable as human voice but lacked any phonological or phonotactic structure that could be matched with real entries in the mental lexicon. To ensure that the task was understood correctly, all subjects undertook a short training session before entering the scanner with a different set of words and pictures. (2011). After removal of trials rated as mispronunciations and those considered outliers according to the non-recursive outlier elimination procedure of Van Selst and Jolicoeur (1994; as experiment 1), a median of 28 trials (range: 11–38) contributed to the high related condition; a median of 29.5 trials (range: 13–38) to the high unrelated condition; a median of 29 trials (range: 12–39) to the low related condition; and a median of 28 (range: 14–37) contributed to the low unrelated condition. The default network was identified as that which was deactivated during the non-semantic stimuli relative to fixation (Shulman et al., 1997; Laird et al., 2009). All behavioral analyses were conducted in Jasp 0.9.1.0 software (JASP Team, 2018). This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. In the other 2 sessions, the participants performed the 4 speech production tasks interleaved with blocks of fixation. A functional theory of the whole mind must make reference to any difference in stimuli or responses that can be mentally significant. 3) shows that dAG was closer to the center of gravity of area PGa and extends anteriorly to area hIP3 (overlap with this area = 14%) and dorsally to area 7A (overlap with this area = 7%), whereas mAG and vAG were mainly located in PGp (overlap with this area = 74%). Each participant was tested individually and sat ∼70 cm away from the computer screen. Specifically, each trial started with a central fixation cross on a gray background lasting 600 ms, then, the prime word was displayed in either yellow or blue, at the center of the screen for 160 ms, followed by a blank screen for 1080 ms, and subsequently the target was displayed on the screen; thus, the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 1240 ms. 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